Grade Retention: Is it a Failed Practice?

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.48112/eassr.v1i1.50

Keywords:

academic achievement, grade retention, student cognition, student scorecards, teacher attributions

Abstract

This research study was conducted to explore the grade retention practices in private schools of Karachi. The study focused on the impact of grade retention and investigated its effectiveness in terms of its merits versus demerits. The context of the study was six private schools of Karachi and scorecards of the failed students from the selected schools, who were in grade six, seven and eight. To achieve the objectives of the study, a mixed method was undertaken to collect the data. The quantitative data were derived from the scorecards of 84 students of two years, summing to a total of 168 scorecards of 84 failed students, who repeated the class in the same school. Paired sample t-test, one sample t-test and two-way MANOVA were applied to analyze the data. The researcher conducted interviews of six teachers and three principals. The interviews were transcribed and decoded, followed by categorization to explore the themes that emerged. The most crucial finding of the research is that retention and social promotion are ineffective solutions for the struggling learners.

References

Anderson, G. E. (2005). Student ratings of stressful experiences at home and school: Loss of a parent and grade retention as superlative stressors. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 21(1), 1-20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1300/J370v21n01_01

Blake, B., & Pope, T. (2008). Developmental psychology: Incorporating Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories in classrooms. Journal of Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives in Education, 1(1), 59 - 67. URL: https://bit.ly/3keuHlg

Bredmar, A. C. (2013). Teachers' experiences of enjoyment of work as a subtle atmosphere: An empirical lifeworld of phenomenological analysis. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology. 13, 1-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2989/IPJP.2013.13.2.6.1180

Byrnes, D. A., & Yamamoto, K. (1986). Views on grade repetition. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 20, 14-20. URL: https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1987-35901-001

Carey, B. (2014). Why flunking exams is actually a good thing. New York Times Magazine. URL: https://nyti.ms/2YStnwg

Chua, A. (2017). More can be done to reduce education stress, say MPs. Singapore: Today, Mediacorp Press Ltd. URL: https://bit.ly/2XtNEIg

Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc. URL: https://bit.ly/3AhBmRw

Cunha, F., Heckman, J. J., Lochner, L., & Masterov, D. V. (2006). Interpreting the evidence on life cycle skill formation. Handbook of the Economics of Education, 1, 697-812. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1574-0692(06)01012-9

Dauber, S. L., Alexander, K. L., & Entwisle, D. R. (1993). Characteristics of retainees and early precursors of retention in grade: Who is held back? Merrill Palmer Quarterly, 39, 326-343. URL: https://bit.ly/3nHfLhN

Dweck, C. S., & Master, A. (2008). Self-theories and self-regulated learning. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulated learning: Theory, research and applications (pp. 31-52). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. URL: https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2008-03967-002

Ebel, R.L., & Frisbie, D. A. (1991). Essentials of educational measurement. New Delhi: Prentice Hall Pvt. Ltd. URL: https://bit.ly/2YSph7m

Engeström, Y. (2001). Expansive learning at work: Toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization. Journal of Education and Work, 14(1), 133-156. DOI: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/ref/10.1080/13639080020028747?scroll=top

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York: Routledge. URL: https://bit.ly/3Eq5UCT

Holmes, C. T. (1976). Grade level retention effects: A meta-analysis of research studies. In L. Shepard & M. L. Smith (Eds.), Flunking grades: Research and policies on retention (pp. 16-33). London: Falmer Press. URL: https://bit.ly/3El4xFz

Hudley, C., & Gottfried, A. E. (2008). Academic motivation and the culture of school in childhood and adolescence (Vol. 1). Oxford: Oxford University Press. URL: https://bit.ly/3hE77N9

Jackson, G. B. (1975). The research evidence on the effects of grade retention. Review of Educational Research, 45(4), 613-635. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543045004613

Jacob, B. A., & Lefgren, L. (2009). The effect of grade retention on high school completion. American Economic Journal-Applied Economics, 1(3), 33-58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1257/app.1.3.33

Jimerson, S. R. (2001). Meta-analysis of grade retention research: Implications for practice in the 21st century. School Psychology Review, 30(3), 420–437. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02796015.2001.12086124

Jimerson, S. R., Anderson, G. E., & Whipple, A. D. (2002). Winning the battle and losing the war: Examining the relation between grade retention and dropping out of high school. Psychology in the Schools, 39(4), 441-457. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.10046

Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2008). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. URL: https://bit.ly/3zguvGo

Ozek, U. (2015). Hold back to move forward? Early grade retention and student misbehavior. Education Finance and Policy, 10(3), 350-377. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1162/EDFP_a_00166

Patton, M. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). California: Sage Publications. URL: https://bit.ly/2Z1xR3U

Roderick, M., & Nagaoka, J. (2005). Retention under Chicago's high-stakes testing program: Helpful, harmful, or harmless? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 27(4), 309–340. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3102/01623737027004309

Teng, A. (2016). Exam stress among the young: When grades define worth. Singapore: The Straits Times. URL: https://bit.ly/399nv3N

Tomchin, E. M., & Impara, J. C. (1992). Unraveling teachers’ beliefs about grade retention. American Educational Research Journal, 29(1), 199-223. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312029001199

Wang, M.C., Haertel, G. D., & Walberg, H.J. (1993). Toward a knowledge base for school learning. Review of Educational Research, 63, 249-294. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543063003365

Weiner, B. (2001). Intrapersonal and interpersonal theories of motivation from an attribution perspective. In Student motivation (pp. 17-30). Boston: Springer, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-1273-8_2

Wertsh, J. V., & Tulviste, P. (1990). Apprenticeship in thinking: Cognitive development in social context. Science, 249(4969), 684-686. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.249.4969.684

Wiersma, W., & Jurs, S. G. (1990). Educational measurement and testing. Boston: AUyn & Bacon. URL: https://amzn.to/3hCnFFq

Witmer, S. M., Hoffman, L. M., & Nottis, K. E. (2001). Elementary teachers' beliefs and knowledge about grade retention: How do we know what they know. Education, 125(2), 173-187. URL: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ698717

Wood, D. A. (1960). Test construction: Development and interpretation of achievement tests. Columbia: Charles E. Merrill Books, URL: https://amzn.to/39bVngg

Wynn, J. L. (2010). A study of selected teachers' perceptions of grade retention in a Florida school district. Graduate Dissertation, University of South Florida. URL: https://bit.ly/39dExO1

Downloads

Published

2021-08-31

How to Cite

Ahmad, A. (2021). Grade Retention: Is it a Failed Practice?. Academy of Education and Social Sciences Review, 1(1), 01–13. https://doi.org/10.48112/eassr.v1i1.50

Issue

Section

Articles