The Role of Vitamin D and Zinc In Facing COVID-19 Injury




Abstract Views: 166

There is no universal cure in treating patients with COVID-19. Although many countries have announced findings of extrapolation on the COVID-19 vaccine trial, it will be difficult to determine the urgent need for an urgent issue that will likely require several months, including vaccination. At the same time, a strategic, preventive, immune-enhancing approach should be considered to commit to strengthening the immune system to enhance host resistance to infection. Aim: This review article aims to review the current literature to explore scientifically discussed updates that stimulate the immune system as a prevention and treatment for COVID-19, based on its antiviral properties.


COVID-19, Vitamin D, Zinc, Supportive strategy, Immunity


Ali, N. (2020). Role of vitamin D in preventing of COVID-19 infection, progression and severity. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 13(10), 1373-1380.

Backhed, F., Roswall, J., Peng, Y., Feng, Q., Jia, H., Kovatcheva-Datchary, P., ... & Wang, J. (2015). Dynamics and stabilization of the human gut microbiome during the first year of life. Cell host & microbe, 17(5), 690-703.

Bhardwaj, S. S., Alduwayhi, S., & Bhardwaj, A. (2020). COVID-19, Various Treatment Options and Special Considerations for Dentistry. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 70-76.

Biesalski, H. K. (2020). Vitamin D deficiency and co-morbidities in COVID-19 patients–A fatal relationship?. NFS J., 10-21.

Dancer, R. C., Parekh, D., Lax, S., D'Souza, V., Zheng, S., Bassford, C. R., ... & Thickett, D. R. (2015). Vitamin D deficiency contributes directly to the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Thorax, 70(7), 617-624.

Daneshkhah, A., Agrawal, V., Eshein, A., Subramanian, H., Roy, H. K., & Backman, V. (2020). The possible role of vitamin D in suppressing cytokine storm and associated mortality in COVID-19 patients. MedRxiv.

Das, S. (2020). Zinc can play a pertinent role in mitigating Covid-19. ET Health World. com.

Di Rosa, M., Malaguarnera, M., Nicoletti, F., & Malaguarnera, L. (2011). Vitamin D3: a helpful immuno‐modulator. Immunology, 134(2), 123-139.

Gammoh, N. Z., & Rink, L. (2017). Zinc in infection and inflammation. Nutrients, 9(6), 624.

Gombart, A. F., Pierre, A., & Maggini, S. (2020). A review of micronutrients and the immune system–working in harmony to reduce the risk of infection. Nutrients, 12(1), 236.

Gorbalenya, A. E., Baker, S. C., Baric, R., Groot, R. J. D., Drosten, C., Gulyaeva, A. A., ... & Ziebuhr, J. (2020). Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: The species and its viruses–a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group. BioRxiv.

Haase, H., & Rink, L. (2014). Zinc signals and immune function. Biofactors, 40(1), 27-40.

Harapan, H., Itoh, N., Yufika, A., Winardi, W., Keam, S., Te, H., ... & Mudatsir, M. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A literature review. Journal of infection and public health, 13(5), 667-673.

Intermountain Healthcare. (2020). Want a defense against COVID-19? Strengthen your immune system. Retrieved 5 December 2021, from

Ishida, T. (2019). Review on the role of Zn2+ ions in viral pathogenesis and the effect of Zn2+ ions for host cell-virus growth inhibition. Am J Biomed Sci Res, 2(1), 28-37.

Ishida, T. (2019). Review on the role of Zn2+ ions in viral pathogenesis and the effect of Zn2+ ions for host cell-virus growth inhibition. Am J Biomed Sci Res, 2(1), 28-37.

Jayawardena, R., Sooriyaarachchi, P., Chourdakis, M., Jeewandara, C., & Ranasinghe, P. (2020). Enhancing immunity in viral infections, with special emphasis on COVID-19: A review. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, 14(4), 367-382.

Kelvin, D. J., & Rubino, S. (2020). Fear of the novel coronavirus. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 14(01), 1-2.

Lai, C. C., Shih, T. P., Ko, W. C., Tang, H. J., & Hsueh, P. R. (2020). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 55(3), 105924.

Lau, F. H., Majumder, R., Torabi, R., Saeg, F., Hoffman, R., Cirillo, J. D., & Greiffenstein, P. (2020). Vitamin D insufficiency is prevalent in severe COVID-19. MedRxiv.

Li, G., Fan, Y., Lai, Y., Han, T., Li, Z., Zhou, P., ... & Wu, J. (2020). Coronavirus infections and immune responses. Journal of medical virology, 92(4), 424-432.

Liming, G. (2020). Epidemic Situation of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia in China mainland. Medrxiv.

Martineau, A. R., & Forouhi, N. G. (2020). Vitamin D for COVID-19: a case to answer?. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 8(9), 735-736.

Mc Call, B. (2020). Medical Societies advice on vitamin D in the midst of COVID-19. Medscape Nurses.

NC for Immunization, (2021). Science Brief: SARS-CoV-2 and Surface (Fomite) Transmission for Indoor Community Environments. In CDC COVID-19 Science Briefs [Internet]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US).

Nesburg, J. (2020). COVID-19 | WHO warns of drawn out pandemic, ‘response fatigue’. Retrieved 5 December 2021, from

Razzaque, M. S. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic: can maintaining optimal zinc balance enhance host resistance?. The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine, 251(3), 175-181.

Simonet, P., Gaget, K., Balmand, S., Lopes, M. R., Parisot, N., Buhler, K., ... & Calevro, F. (2018). Bacteriocyte cell death in the pea aphid/Buchnera symbiotic system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(8), E1819-E1828.

Skalny, A. V., Rink, L., Ajsuvakova, O. P., Aschner, M., Gritsenko, V. A., Alekseenko, S. I., ... & Tinkov, A. A. (2020). Zinc and respiratory tract infections: Perspectives for COVID 19. International journal of molecular medicine, 46(1), 17-26.

Smith, N. H., Gordon, S. V., de la Rua-Domenech, R., Clifton-Hadley, R. S., & Hewinson, R. G. (2006). Bottlenecks and broomsticks: the molecular evolution of Mycobacterium bovis. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 4(9), 670-681.

Tayyib, N. A., Ramaiah, P., Alsolami, F. J., & Alshmemri, M. S. (2020). Immunomodulatory Effects of Zinc as a Supportive Strategies for COVID-19. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 14-22.

Te Velthuis, A. J., van den Worm, S. H., Sims, A. C., Baric, R. S., Snijder, E. J., & van Hemert, M. J. (2010). Zn2+ inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these viruses in cell culture. PLoS pathogens, 6(11), e1001176.

UK Health Security Agency. (2021). COVID-19: epidemiology, virology and clinical features. Retrieved 5 December 2021, from

Vahdat, K., Amini, A., Najafi, A., & Haerinejad, M. J. (2014). A review of novel coronavirus, cause of middle east respiratory syndrome. ISMJ, 16(6), 486-492.

WHO. (2020). Coronavirus Disease (COVID‐19): How Is It Transmitted?. World Health Organization. 30 April 2021.

Zhang, L., & Liu, Y. (2020). Potential interventions for novel coronavirus in China: A systematic review. Journal of medical virology, 92(5), 479-490.

Zhu, N., Zhang, D., Wang, W., Li, X., Yang, B., Song, J., ... & Wu, G. (2020). A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. The New England Journal of Medicine, 382(8):727-733.

The Role of Vitamin D and Zinc In Facing COVID-19 Injury



How to Cite

Jassim, Y. A. (2022). The Role of Vitamin D and Zinc In Facing COVID-19 Injury. Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, 1(1), 6–10.