Investigation of Tritrichomonas Foetus in Cattle Using Different Methods in Basrah City – Iraq

Authors

  • Muntaha A. H. Nasir Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Basrah University, Basrah - Iraq https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8096-1597
  • Al-Idreesi S.R. 2Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Basrah University, Basrah, Iraq
  • Wasfi A. Al-Masoudi College of Veterinary Medicine, Basrah University, Basrah - Iraq

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v2i1.334

Abstract

Abstract Views: 73

Tritrichomonas foetus causes a venereal disease in cattle called bovine trichomoniasis. T. foetus lives in the reproductive tract of the cow, the surface of the penis and prepuce of the bull and causing early fetal loss and sometimes late term abortions. It can also extend breeding / calving season. In this study, 155 cows of different ages (2-6 years old) and with a variety of clinical signs (repeat breeders, abortions, and discharge only) were examined from different areas in Basrah Province, Iraq from November 2020 to July 2021, and 75 samples collected from healthy animals (without any symptom). The infection rate was detected in wet mount techniques found fewer positive findings than in pouch techniques, with 12 (40%) recorded and in pouch systems, 30 (100%) recorded while in the culture 24(80 %), Giemsa-stained smears 19(63.3%) and Acridine orange was 20 (66.6%). The present study improved that cows more than three years are more susceptible to be infected than cows less than three years. The study concluded that if no control method is applied in Basrah, there is a serious risk of spreading Trichomonas foetus.

Keywords:

Culture in diamond medium, In-pouch TF, Staining, Tritrichomonas foetus, Wet preparation

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Alobaidii, W. A., Alobaidii, Q. T., & Hassan, S. D. (2021). Detection of Trichomoniasis in cattle in Nineveh province. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 35(2), 287-290. http://dx.doi.org/10.33899/ijvs.2020.126790.1380

Bauer J.D., Ackermann P.G. and Toro G. (1974). Clinical laboratory method .8th ed., The C.V. Mosby Company, Saint Louis, P:50-51,85- 86 .

BonDurant, R. H., Anderson, M. L., Blanchard, P., Hird, D., Danaye-Elmi, C., Palmer, C., ... & Weigler, B. J. (1990). Prevalence of trichomoniasis among California beef herds. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 196(10), 1590-1593. https://europepmc.org/article/med/2347750

Bryan, L. A., Campbell, J. R., & Gajadhar, A. A. (1999). Effects of temperature on the survival of Tritrichomonas foetus in transport, Diamond's and InPouch TF media. Veterinary Record, 144(9), 227-232. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.144.9.227

Campero, C. M., Dubra, C. R., Bolondi, A., Cacciato, C., Cobo, E., Perez, S., ... & BonDurant, R. H. (2003). Two-step (culture and PCR) diagnostic approach for differentiation of non-T. foetus trichomonads from genitalia of virgin beef bulls in Argentina. Veterinary parasitology, 112(3), 167-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4017(02)00423-5

Cobo, E. R., Favetto, P. H., Lane, V. M., Friend, A., VanHooser, K., Mitchell, J., & BonDurant, R. H. (2007). Sensitivity and specificity of culture and PCR of smegma samples of bulls experimentally infected with Tritrichomonas foetus. Theriogenology, 68(6), 853-860. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.06.019

Corbeil, L. B., Anderson, M. L., Corbeil, R. R., Eddow, J. M., & BonDurant, R. H. (1998). Female reproductive tract immunity in bovine trichomoniasis. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 39(3), 189-198. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0897.1998.tb00353.x

Dahab, M. M., Koko, W. S., Osman, E. E., & Hilali, A. H. M. (2012). Prevalence and transmission of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among women in Khartoum State, Sudan. Journal of Public health and Epidemiology, 4(2), 34-38.

Diamond, L. S. (1957). The establishment of various trichomonads of animals and man in axenic cultures. The Journal of parasitology, 43(4), 488-490. https://doi.org/10.2307/3274682

Gregory, M. W., Elles, B., & Redwood, D. W. (1990). Comparison of sampling methods for the detection of Trichomonas fetus. Journal of veterinary research, 4, 1430-149.

J Hassan, B. (2013). Detection of bovine trichomoniasis of bulls in Basrah slaughterhouse. Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, 12(1), 98-103. http://dx.doi.org/10.33762/bvetr.2013.76192

Jebara, K. B., Cáceres, P., Berlingieri, F., & Weber-Vintzel, L. (2012). Ten years’ work on the world organisation for animal health (OIE) worldwide animal disease notification system. Preventive veterinary medicine, 107(3-4), 149-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2012.08.008

Kittel, D. R., Campero, C., Van Hoosear, K. A., Rhyan, J. C., & BonDurant, R. H. (1998). Comparison of diagnostic methods for detection of active infection with Tritrichomonas foetus in beef heifers. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 213(4), 519-522. https://europepmc.org/article/med/9713536

Krieger, J. N., Verdon, M., Siegel, N., & Holmes, K. K. (1993). Natural history of urogenital trichomoniasis in men. The Journal of urology, 149(6), 1455-1458. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(17)36414-5

Lun, Z. R., & Gajadhar, A. A. (1999). A simple and rapid method for staining Tritrichomonas foetus and Trichomonas vaginalis. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 11(5), 471-474.

Murtaza S., Raza M.A., Akhtar M. S., Ayaz M. M., Farooq M. A. A., Ali M. and Ali F. (2015). Predominance of Bovine Trichomoniasis in Multan District, Adjacent Areas, Pakistan. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 5(1):50.

Nasir, M. A., Al-Idreesi, S. R., & Al-Masoudi, W. A. (2022). Comparison of Different Techniques for the Diagnosis of Trichomonas Vaginalis Infection in Females at Reproductive Age. Pakistan Journal of Medical & Health Sciences, 16(07), 451-451. https://doi.org/10.53350/pjmhs22167451

Parker, S., Campbell, J., & Gajadhar, A. (2003). Comparison of the diagnostic sensitivity of a commercially available culture kit and a diagnostic culture test using Diamond's media for diagnosing Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls. Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation, 15(5), 460-465. https://doi.org/10.1177/104063870301500510

Radonjic, I. V., Dzamic, A. M., Mitrovic, S. M., Arsenijevic, V. S. A., Popadic, D. M., & Zec, I. F. K. (2006). Diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection: the sensitivities and specificities of microscopy, culture and PCR assay. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 126(1), 116-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2005.07.033

Rae, D. O., Crews, J. E., Greiner, E. C., & Donovan, G. A. (2004). Epidemiology of Tritrichomonas foetus in beef bull populations in Florida. Theriogenology, 61(4), 605-618. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0093-691X(03)00236-X

Saba, A. M. (2012). The usage of In-Pouch TV culture system as a method for Trichomonas vaginalis detection in Baghdad/AL-Karkh (Doctoral dissertation, MSc thesis. College of Science. University of Baghdad).

Sallu, F., Asare, D. A., Aseno, N. T., Essel-Cobbinah, D., & Emikpe, B. O. (2022). Detection of Tritrichomonas foetus in cattle at the Kumasi abattoir. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, 43(1), 34-40.

Taylor, M. A., Marshall, R. N., & Stack, M. (1994). Morphological differentiation of Tritrichomonas foetus from other protozoa of the bovine reproductive tract. British Veterinary Journal, 150(1), 73-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0007-1935(05)80098-3

Waters, K., & Gard, J. (2021). Infectious Agents: Tritrichomonas. Bovine Reproduction, 725-732. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119602484.ch58

Yao, C. (2013). Diagnosis of Tritrichomonas foetus-infected bulls, an ultimate approach to eradicate bovine trichomoniasis in US cattle?. Journal of medical microbiology, 62(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.047365-0

Youngquist, R. S., & Threlfall, W. R. (2006). Current therapy in large animal theriogenology. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Investigation of Tritrichomonas Foetus in Cattle Using Different Methods in Basrah City – Iraq

Published

2023-01-01

How to Cite

Nasir, M. A. H., S.R., A.-I., & Al-Masoudi, W. A. (2023). Investigation of Tritrichomonas Foetus in Cattle Using Different Methods in Basrah City – Iraq. Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, 2(1), 39–43. https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v2i1.334

Issue

Section

Articles