Author Guidelines



Authors intending to submit a manuscript to the Journal of Engineering, Science and Technological Trends (JESTT) should check whether the manuscript is consistent with the journal’s editorial strategies and scope. Manuscripts submitted to JESTT are welcome in all areas of empirical research, case studies, discussions, and critical reviews on a wide range of areas and themes that come under the ambit of education and social sciences. The focus of the journal is on research rigour, modelling, data-driven innovations, interpretation of results, and how the results of the research may be translated into practice. JESTT also publishes a variety of other papers including teaching modules, discussion papers, book reviews and editorial notes. Subject areas are available at About the Journal.


Please write your manuscript in good English, preferably after getting it edited and proofread by a competent authority.

Submission and Correspondence ID           

Manuscripts should be electronically submitted via Make a Submission. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

File Type

The manuscript should be submitted as a single Microsoft Word file including all contents. The author owns full rights of the text provided and the changes will not be made by the editors and publishers. In the case of the reprinting of previously published or copyright-protected material, the author is solely responsible for obtaining permission in this regard.

Article Length/Word limit

The length of an article, including the title, author information, abstract, text, tables, figures, notes, references, and appendices should be approximately 5000-6000 words.

Submission Checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:

  • E-mail address
  • Full postal address

Include the files listed below:

  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • All figures (include relevant captions)
  • All tables (including titles, descriptions, footnotes)
  • Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
  • Supplementary files (where applicable)

Please ensure the figures and tables included in the single file are placed either next to the relevant text in the article or on separate pages(s) at the end (not a mixture of both).

Further considerations

  • The manuscript has been 'spell-checked and grammar checked'
  • All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
  • Permission has been obtained for use of copyright material from other sources (including the Internet)
  • A competing interest statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interest to declare
  • Full forms of abbreviations for abstracting and abstracting purposes should be presented in the manuscript.
  • Review journal policies detailed in this guide

Submission Declaration

It is JESTT's editorial policy to welcome submissions for consideration, which are original and not under consideration for any other publication at the same time. All authors should be aware of the importance of presenting content that is based on their own research and expressed in their own words. Plagiarism is unacceptable and unethical. As per the HEC Plagiarism Policy, originality guidelines are designed to assist authors in understanding acceptable and unacceptable practices.

JESTT follows the HEC Plagiarism policy that allows a similarity of less than 19% in the overall manuscript. In addition, plagiarism from each source should be less than 5%. In case your paper is extracted from your own previously conducted research work, please place the following statement in the author’s note:

“I hereby declare that the given paper is extracted from my MPhil/PhD thesis and/or is an extension of my previous research work.”


General guidelines for preparing the manuscript for submission are summarized in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.; APA, 2010, pp. 228–231). Authors may also find the following documents helpful for preparing manuscripts for submission to the JESTT.

 APA Kit 

Title Page

The first page of the manuscript should contain the title of the paper, the name(s) of the author(s), and a footnote giving the current affiliation of the author(s) and any acknowledgements or author’s note.

Abstract, Keywords, and Classification Codes

All manuscripts must include an abstract containing a maximum of 200 words typed on a separate page followed by five keywords or brief phrases (APA). The abstract should explain the purpose of the research, the primary results, major conclusions, and any policy prescriptions. It should not exaggerate or contain material, not in the main text. The abstract should be followed by JEL classification and keywords. Please provide up to 6 standard JEL/AMS codes. The available codes may be accessed at JEL ( or AMS (


A strong introduction engages the reader in the problem and provides a context for the study at hand. In introducing the research concern, the author should provide a clear rationale regarding why the problem deserves new research, placing the study in the context of current knowledge, and prior theoretical and empirical work on the topic. The summary of results should have been dealt with in the abstract. The introduction section should contain the following  separate headings:

  • Problem Statment
  • Objectives of the Study
  • Research Questions and/or Hypothesis 
  • Theoretical and/or Conceptual Framework 

Literature Review

The author needs to extend the background to the article’s introduction and identify the most relevant previous literature on the topic for positioning the paper and demonstrating its significance. A separate section for setting out the theoretical or conceptual framework is recommended. In short, this section of the literature review should explain the motivation for the paper and the importance of this research to the contributions. 

Methodology/ Analysis

The author is required to provide an elaborate description of the methods used as well as an explanation of the processes applied to gather and analyse the data and that the methodology is appropriate and systematic.

Results & Discussion

Results should be clear and concise. The significance of the results of the research work, with no repeated mention of results in the text, is often appropriate.

Tables, Figures, Formulas and Equations

Tables should be numbered and headed with appropriate concise titles. The tables are preferred to be presented after the main body of the text and not inserted in the manuscript. Tables for the main text and each of its appendices should be numbered serially and separately. The title of each table, as well as the captions of its columns and rows, should be clearly expressive of the contents. The source of the tables should be given in a footnote immediately below the line at the bottom of the table, but unlike other footnotes, which must be numbered consecutively, they should not be numbered.

Mathematical formulae/ Equations: Please include mathematical equations and expressions as editable text and not as images. Write equations and formulas using the equation editor.

Figure captions: Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations to a minimum, but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. The resolution of the image should be 300 dpi.

Tables: Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end (not a mixture of both).


The original contribution of the manuscript and the discussion of the implications of the findings should be clearly mentioned in this section. Provide a critical assessment of the limitations of the study, and outline possible directions for future research. The conclusion section should contain the following separate headings:

  1. Recommendations
  2. Limitations
  3. Future Directions


End References: JESTT requires all references in APA 7th edition format. All references used in the text should be listed in the alphabetical order of the authors’ surnames at the end of the text. References should be complete and correct. A list of references is presented at the end of the paper under the heading ‘References’. The use of DOI is highly encouraged.

In-text citation: Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Reference management software such as Mendeley, EndNote etc. are preferable for reference citation.

Revised Submissions

Make sure that first accepted all changes previously listed under 'track changes, and that all embedded comments or highlighted text have likewise been removed. To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the "spell-check" and "grammar-check" functions of your word processor.


The manuscripts submitted to the JESTT must be original and unpublished. They must not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. The authors are solely responsible for acquiring permission to reproduce the copyrighted material from other sources, if necessary.


ORCID provides a persistent digital identifier that distinguishes you from every other researcher. Through integration in key research workflows, such as manuscript and grant submission, it supports automated linkages between you and your professional activities ensuring that your work is recognized.

JESTT requires all contributing authors and co-authors to provide their ORCID IDs, as they are important for indexing and profiling. IDs also enhance your integral search visibility all over the internet. ORCID IDs are for a lifetime and can be obtained free of charge through a simple registration process at


Author Copyright

All authors who submit their manuscript for publication will abide by the following provision of copyright transfer:

  1. The copyright of the paper rests with the authors and they are transferring the copyright to publish the article and use the article for indexing and storing for public use with due reference to published matter in the name of concerned authors.
  2. The authors reserve all proprietary rights such as patent rights and the right to use all or part of the article in future work of their own such as lectures, press releases, and reviews of textbooks.
  3. In the case of republication of the whole, part, or parts thereof, in periodicals or reprint publications by a third party, written permission must be obtained from the Managing Editor of JESTT
  4. The authors declare that the material presented in the paper is their original work, and does not contain or include material taken from other copyrighted sources.
  5. Wherever such material has been included, it has been clearly indented or/and identified by quotation marks and proper acknowledgements given, by citing the source at appropriate places.
  6. The paper, the final version of which they submit, is not substantially the same as they had already published elsewhere.
  7. They declare that they have not sent the paper or the same as the submitted one, for publication anywhere else.
  8. Furthermore, the author may only post his/her version, provided acknowledgement is given to the original source of publication in this journal and a link is inserted wherever published.
  9. All contents, written matters, publications are under copyright act taken by JESTT.
  10. Published articles will be available for use by scholars and researchers.
  11. JESTT is not responsible for any type of claim on publication in the journal.


Reviewer Guidelines

Peer review in all its form plays an important role in ensuring the integrity of the scholarly record. The process depends to a large extent on trust and requires that everyone involved should be ethically responsible. In the peer-review process, the role of the peer reviewers is highly critical and inevitable; however, due to inadequate guidance, the peer reviewers are often unaware of their ethical obligations. Journal of Engineering, Science and Technological Trends (JESTT) adopts a double-blind peer review policy, following the COPE Ethical Guidelines for Peer Reviewers that has set out the basic principles and standards to which all peer reviewers should adhere during the peer-review process.

Basic principles to which peer reviewers should adhere To:

  • Agree to review manuscripts for which they have the subject expertise to carry out a proper assessment and which they can assess in a timely manner
  • Respect the confidentiality of peer review and not reveal any details of a manuscript or its review, during or after the peer-review process, beyond those that are released by the journal.
  • Refrain from using information obtained during the peer-review process for their own or any other person’s or organization’s advantage, or to disadvantage or discredit others
  • Reviews should not be influenced by the origins of a manuscript, nationality, religious or political beliefs, gender or other characteristics of the authors, or by commercial considerations.
  • Be objective and constructive in their reviews, refrain from being hostile or inflammatory and making slanderous or derogatory personal comments
  • Acknowledge that peer review is largely a reciprocal endeavour and undertake to carry out their fair share of reviewing and in a timely manner.
  • Provide journals with personal and professional information that is accurate and a true representation of their expertise.
  • Recognize that impersonation of another individual during the review process is considered as serious misconduct.


Reviewer Conflict of Interest

The following situations are considered conflicts and should be avoided:

  • Co-authoring publications with at least one of the authors in the past two years
  • Being colleagues within the same section/department or similar organizational unit in the past two years
  • Supervised doctoral work of the author (s) or being supervised by the author(s)
  • Received professional or personal benefit resulting from the review
  • Have a personal relationship (e.g. family, close friend) with the author(s)
  • Have a direct or indirect financial interest in the paper being reviewed

It is not considered a Conflict of Interest if the reviewers have worked together with the authors in a collaborative project or if they have co-organized an event.


Publication Process

Major Steps and Time Breakdown

The Publication Process includes the following four major steps:

  1. Desk Review (5-15 days)
  2. Peer Review (4-6 weeks)
  3. Copyediting (10-15 days)
  4. Production (10-15 days)

The submitted manuscript is reviewed by the editorial team to check its strength, uniqueness, and scope. This initial review is known as Desk Review (Initial Screening). The Desk Review is completed in a minimum of 5 days from the day of submission. 

The manuscript that successfully passes the Desk Review is sent for a (Double Blind) Peer Review Process where external reviewers in the respective field of study examine the manuscript. The Peer Review is completed in a minimum of 4 weeks from the day of the Desk Review. 

If the manuscript successfully passes the Peer Review process, it is sent for Copyediting where the manuscript is reviewed by internal and language experts. The Copyediting is completed in a minimum of 10 days from the day of the completion of the Peer Review Process. 

When the manuscript successfully passes the Copyediting process, it is sent for production where the manuscript is composed as per the journal’s requirement and scheduled for publication. The Composing process takes usually 10 days.


Article Processing Charges

JESTT publishes all its articles in full open access, which means unlimited use and reuse of articles, in addition to giving credit to the authors, under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 3.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

JESTT is published under a Platinum Open Access (POA) arrangement as described by Emerald Publishing.  In the POA arrangement, all costs associated with publishing Open Access articles are arranged by the Publisher (International Research and Publishing Academy - iRAPA).

Authors pay a one-time Article Processing Charge (APC) to cover the costs of peer review administration and management, professional production of articles in PDF and other formats, and dissemination of published papers in various venues, in addition to other publishing functions. There are no charges for rejected articles, no submission charges, and no surcharges based on the length of an article, figures or supplementary data. Some items (Editorials, Corrections, Addendums, Retractions, Comments, etc.) are published free of charge.

Article Processing Charge

National Authors

International Authors

Submission Fee (non-refundable)*

5000 PKR

20 USD

APC (refundable)**

20,000 PKR

130 USD


25,000 PKR

150 USD

*The Submission Fee is a one-time APC that a corresponding author pays upon submission. The Submission Fee is non-refundable whether the submitted manuscript is accepted or rejected in the Desk Review process.

 ** Upon the successful completion of Desk Review, the corresponding author is to pay the rest of the APC. If the submitted manuscript is rejected in the Peer Review, the rest of the APC is refunded to the corresponding author.

 APC waivers and discounts

Research scholars may get up to a 25% waiver in APC. iRAPA also offers APC waivers (up to 50%) to manuscripts whose corresponding authors are based in countries classified by the World Bank as low-income economies. Requests from other authors in financial need will be considered on a case-by-case basis. For more information, write iRAPA's Journals' Support Staff